Maintaining pH Balance...|
"Cancer cells cannot survive in oxygen."
Astrophysicist Paul Davies' report:
deep evolutionary roots"
Physics World, July 2013.
can drive cancer cells to spread"
By maintaining body pH slightly above 7.4 cancer cells become dormant and at pH 8.5 cancer cells will die
while healthy cells will live.
(Brewer, 1984) and Sartori (1984)
The human metabolism produces
highly acidic wastes,
which must be eliminated.
Acid build-up = health breakdown.
water and exercise
Physical movement in fresh air,
deep breathing, singng, laughing,
dancing, walking, running ...
daily dietary intake:
20% acid foods and
80% alkaline foods
Diets rich in animal proteins
tend to produce acid build-up
while diets mainly composed
of vegetables alkalize the gut and
take the pressure off the kidneys, etc.
Chronic inflammation is the epidemic of the 21st century.
An inappropriate diet consisting of high glycemic, high glucose foods as well as indigestible foods causing food intolerances are responsible for creating inflammation in the body.
An inflammation condition will also exacerbate other health problems and compromise recovery. Aging, in itself, brings on potential inflammation and pain. It goes without saying that whatever will eliminate inflammation not only supports the body to heal but also becomes an essential part of an effective anti-aging program.
The blood, lymph and cerebral spinal fluid in the human body are designed to be slightly alkaline at a pH of 7.35 to 7.45.
The kidneys are the body's waste disposal system.
Their #1 job is keeping blood pH stable (pH of 7.35 to 7.45) by filtering out wastes, toxins and extra fluid via urine, aka uric acid."Each kidney is made up of about a million filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron filters a small amount of blood." >>> more
|"Chew your drink and drink your food."
– Mahatma Gandhi
Digestion begins in your mouth:
The slower you chew, the less you are inclined to eat.
'Speed eating' or gorging and binge eating
contributes to unhealthy weight gain and indigestion.
Unchewed food particles are not welcome in your stomach
Parents often encourage the gulping-down habit
by telling their children to hurry up and finish their meal.
Leptin, ghrelin and cholestokinnen hormones, which signal satiation,
reach their peak about 30 minutes after food is ingested.
Uric acid build-up in the kidneys can cause renal insufficiency
– the inability of the kidneys to filter waste –
The first symptom is
The second symptom is
which can lead to
– gout, arthritis, chronic kidney disease,
kidney stones or kidney failure, hypothyroidism,
etc. – ultimately leading to cellular "de-coupling" from the immune system, aka
"85% of disease is caused by emotions." – Anon
Not a new idea...
In 1933, Dr William Howard Hay published a ground-breaking book, A New Health Era, in which he demonstrated that all disease is caused by autotoxication (or "self-poisoning") leading to acidosis and lack of oxygen in the body.
"Now we depart from health in just the proportion to which we have allowed our alkalis to be dissipated by introduction of acid-forming food in too great amount... It may seem strange to say that all disease is the same thing, no matter what its myriad modes of expression, but it is verily so." William Howard Hay, M.D. A New Health Era (1933)
Think about it!
— Even fish need the correct pH in order to live in a fish tank.
— Plants need the soil in which they grow to have the optimal pH.
— A swimming pool must be pH balanced, or else algae will appear.
— Oceans of the world have an optimal pH — they are becoming acidic, and coral reefs are dissolving.
"Our body replaces 1 billion cells every hour. Everything we think, feel, do, and eat in an hour influences that cell replacement more than stem cell therapy."
– Dr. Bruce Lipton, Biologist, stem-cell research pioneer at Stanford University, and author of The Biology of Belief (2005)
At heart, humans are naturally happy creatures, but we are not happy when we are stressed, sick, or in pain. Maintaining pH balance helps to minimize stress and disease. How we live is just as important as what we eat: in other words, relationships, career, spirituality and even getting a good night’s sleep can be just as important as nutrient-dense meals.
Nutritional health plays a major role in personal resilience.
Nutrition is the primary contributor to brain function, memory and concentration. Poor health is a leading cause of anxiety, anger, depression and much more. Most people have no idea that they are actually suffering from physical health issues caused by food intolerances and poor digestion.
Lifestyle, nutrition, mental and emotional health are interconnected.
If one or more of these parts breaks down, they can cause other parts to break down. Conversely, working on one or more of the parts helps repair all of the parts. With an integrated approach we can become fully healthy, with greater awareness of what constitutes a resilient healthy state of being.
A Wake-up Call
"Every cancer is different, every person is different and every treatment plan will be different. There are many paths to recovery, but through my research and interviews I have found that cancer survivors often responded to their diagnoses in a similar way: they shared a tendency to view their illness not as a death threat, but as a wake-up call, and they showed a willingness to embrace radical, positive change. While it might be tempting to bury your head in the sand, abdicating responsibility won’t help you heal. So rise up, read up and take the reins. The road to health starts with being fully informed.”
– Laura Bond, Mum's Not Having Chemo: Cutting-Edge Therapies, Real-Life Stories, a Road-Map to Healing from Cancer.
We each need to do our own research.
We need to become our own health maintenance detective.
We need to listen to our own 'body language' because every body is different.
There are so many details to consider that it is best not to self diagnose.
|Work with your preferred health care providers to determine how best to achieve optimal health and always check with your health care provider before taking a supplement, especially when combining or substituting them with other foods or medicine. And, beware of processed "food-like" products which bear no resemblance to real food. They're full of sugars and synthetic food additives that have been scientifically proven to cause metabolic dysfunction and other health problems, not to mention food addiction.
"Paying attention to acid-alkaline balance is one of the most crucial ways you can affect your health status. It impacts immunity, digestion, bone strength, symptoms of joint disease, hormones, and the function of essential internal organs."
–Susan Lark, M.D., co-author(2000),The Chemistry of Success: Six Secrets of Peak Performance
The SCIENCE: Oxygen, Fermentation, Acid pH
Tumor cells engineer acidity to drive cell invasion
January 25, 2013
Researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center and colleagues at Wayne State University School of Medicine investigated the acidity in solid tumors to determine if pH levels play a role in cancer cell invasion in surrounding tissues. They found that an acidic microenvironment can drive cancer cells to spread and propose that neutralizing pH would inhibit further invasion, providing a therapeutic opportunity to slow the progression of cancers. ... acidity in solid tumors is the result of an increased fermentative metabolism combined with poor delivery of blood to tissues. >>> more
4. It's all about PREVENTION
5. pH Neutralising
Why should we listen to an Astrophysicist?
Because they "seek to understand the universe and our place in it." NASA
Generally speaking, cancer cell proliferation follows a pattern, and when a physical process follows a pattern, physicists can bring valuable insights from their discipline.
Dr. Paul Davies explains how and why cancer cells
"de-couple" from the immune system.
With a background in fundamental theoretical physics and cosmology, astrophysicist Paul Davies began asking why cancer exists, and found that when cells "de-couples" from the body's immune system they form a "cancer tumour" that looks like the early stages of embryonic development – that will eat you alive.
Exposing cancer's deep evolutionary roots
"Cancer has long been recognised as a throwback to a "selfish cell" era. But recent advances in research permit us to embellish this picture. For example, cancer cells thrive in low-oxygen (even zero-oxygen) conditions, reverting to an earlier, albeit less efficient, form of metabolism known as fermentation." –– Paul Davies
Dr. Paul Davies, Physics World July 2013
Single-celled organisms act to preserve themselves, while cells in multicellular organisms act for the greater good.
The embryonic formation of the body and all of its organs are a choice the single-cell makes to become mortal, within the immune system, and cancer is a mutation that unfolds when the cell "de-couples" from an “inflamed” immune system. ...
The genomes of nearly all healthy human cells, containing the entirety of an individual’s inherited information, evidently come pre-loaded with a “cancer sub-routine” that is normally idle but can be triggered into action by a wide variety of insults, such as chemicals, radiation and inflammation.
Evidence is mounting that the micro-environment at the cells’ destination plays a key role in the success of metastasis. … deep links between embryogenesis and tumorigenesis have been found …
As the complex regulatory mechanisms of the body break down, the cancer defaults to earlier and earlier phenotypes, with the most malignant cells representing the most ancestral forms.
There is a quite different additional link between cancer and early forms of life.
Cancer cells tend to adopt an ancient mode of metabolism known as fermentation, or glycolysis, which takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell. In contrast, healthy cells mostly use a process known as oxidation-phosphorylation, or ox-phos, which is performed within tiny organelles called mitochondria. The characteristics of fermentation are its ability to flourish in low-oxygen conditions (hypoxia), its high demand for sugar (glucose) and a low-pH environment – all conditions characteristic of tumours. Could it be, we wonder, that cancer’s predilection for a hypoxic environment reflects the prevailing conditions on Earth at the time when multicellularity first evolved, before the second great oxygenation event?
Download "Exposing cancer's deep evolutionary roots"
Physics World, July 2013.
Visit Dr. Davies website
Cancer cells evolved on earth before oxygen ––
and CAN NOT grow in oxygen.
Why can't cancer cells survive in oxygen?
Here's a clue!
In my year 10 high school biology class, I learned that cells developed on earth before oxygen: That cells 'clumped' together inside a 'skin' to protect themselves from oxygen and those 'clumps' evolved to become our 'body' - every body. So, when the body is low in oxygen, aka acid pH, acidic, acidosis, some of the body's cells can "de-couple from an inflamed immune system" – they then REVERT to their pre-oxygen primordial single-cell status and form new 'clusters' – new bodies – aka cancer tumours which live off the 'host' body.
Fundamental system breakdown is demonstrated in the way cancer cells "de-couple" from the immune system. The potential for cancer mutation is deeply embedded in all multi-cellular organisms - mammals, birds, fish and reptiles, with deep evolutionary roots going back hundreds of millions of years.
"Cancer can teach us about our own evolution"
The Guardian, Monday 19 November 2012, Dr Paul Davies, explains:
By asking ourselves why cancer might exist, we can get a glimpse of life in a bygone biological age....
Medical science treats cancer as a disease in which rogue cells proliferate uncontrollably, running amok around the body. Therapy focuses on killing the cancer before it kills the host. Unfortunately, the emphasis on cancer cells as defective loose cannons is at odds with the stubborn way they outwit both the body's defences and the physician's armoury.
Cancer is such a ruthless adversary because it behaves as if it has its own fiendishly cunning agenda. Cancer cells come pre-programmed to execute a well-defined cascade of changes, seemingly designed to facilitate both their enhanced survival and their dissemination through the bloodstream. There is even an air of conspiracy in the way that tumours use chemical signals to create cancer-friendly niches in remote organs.
In the frantic search for an elusive "cure", few researchers stand back and ask a very basic question: why does cancer exist? What is its place in the grand story of life? Astonishingly, in spite of decades of research, there is no agreed theory of cancer, no explanation for why, inside almost all healthy cells, there lurks a highly efficient cancer subroutine that can be activated by a variety of agents – radiation, chemicals, inflammation and infection.
Cancer, it seems, is embedded in the basic machinery of life, a type of default state that can be triggered by some kind of insult. That suggests it is not a modern aberration but has deep evolutionary roots, a suspicion confirmed by the fact that it is not confined to humans but is widespread among mammals, fish, reptiles and even plants. Scientists have identified genes implicated in cancer that are thought to be hundreds of millions of years old. Clearly, we will fully understand cancer only in the context of biological history. >>> more
Cell Physiology - 1931
“Cancer, above all other diseases, has countless secondary causes. But, even for cancer, there is only one prime cause. Summarized in a few words, the prime cause of cancer is the replacement of the respiration of oxygen in normal body cells by a fermentation of sugar.” – Professor Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883-1970), won the Nobel Prize in 1931 for his pioneering research in the chemistry of Cell Physiology, the process of oxidation, at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology, Berlin-Dahlem, Germany, where he discovered was that cancer cells were low in oxygen due to a change in cellular respiration from using oxygen to using fermentation of sugar.
Warburg's Nobel Prize committee biography was written in 1931 and updated in 1965:
For his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme, the Nobel Prize has been awarded to him in 1931. This discovery has opened up new ways in the fields of cellular metabolism and cellular respiration. He has shown, among other things, that cancerous cells can live and develop, even in the absence of oxygen. >>> more
The following excerpt gives an important insight:
Otto Warburg's 1956 paper, On the Origin of Cancer Cells, Science 24 Feb 1956: Vol. 123, Issue 3191, pp. 309-314, DOI: 10.1126/science.123.3191.309).
What was formerly only qualitative has now become quantitative. What was formerly only probable has now become certain. The era in which the fermentation of the cancer cells or its importance could be disputed is over, and no one today can doubt that we understand the origin of cancer cells if we know how their large fermentation originates, or, to express it more fully, if we know how the damaged respiration and the excessive fermentation of the cancer cells originate.
Energy of respiration and fermentation
We now know the chemical mechanisms of respiration and fermentation almost completely, but we do not need this knowledge for what follows, since energy alone will be the centre of our considerations. We need to know no more of respiration and fermentation here than that they are energy-producing reactions and that they synthesise the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate, through which the energy of respiration and fermentation is then made available for life. Since it is known how much adenosine triphosphate can be synthesised by respiration and how much by fermentation, we can write immediately the potential, biologically utilizable energy production of any cells if we have measured their respiration and fermentation. … the cancer cells can obtain approximately the same amount of energy from fermentation as from respiration, whereas the normal body cells obtain much more energy from respiration than from fermentation. For example, the liver and kidney of an adult animal obtain about 100 times as much energy from respiration as from fermentation.
I shall not consider aerobic fermentation, which is a result of the interaction of respiration and fermentation, because aerobic fermentation is too labile and too dependent on external conditions. Of importance for the considerations that follow are only the two stable independent metabolic processes, respiration and anaerobic fermentation – respiration which is measured by the oxygen consumption of cells that are saturated with oxygen, and fermentation, which is measured by the formation of lactic acid in the absence of oxygen. >>> more
Questions answered by Neil Saunders, Computational biologist
• Why do aerobic organisms need oxygen?
• How do anaerobic organisms live without oxygen?
• Why are some anaerobes facultative and others obligate?
• Why is oxygen toxic for obligate anaerobes? >>> more
Often cited clinical studies include:
– Understanding the Warburg Effect: The Metabolic Requirements of Cell Proliferation
– Aubrey Keith Brewer, Ph.D.(1893-1986) the founder of the Brewer International Science Library. Read Dr. Brewer's words about his interest in cancer treatment and how this culminated in the development of his High pH Cancer Therapy.
– Fermentation, mitochondria and regulation (2012)
Fermentation reactions occur in the cytoplasm of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In the absence of oxygen, pyruvate does not enter the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells.
– Sartori H. E. (1984): Nutrients and cancer: an introduction to cesium therapy.
The rationale for this approach termed the "high pH" therapy resides in changing the acidic pH range of the cancer cell by cesium towards weak alkalinity in which the survival of the cancer cell is endangered, and the formation of acidic and toxic materials, normally formed in cancer cells, is neutralized and eliminated.
– How Fermentation Gives Us Beer, Wine, Cheese—and Cancer?
Even in the presence of oxygen, cancer cells and some bacteria prefer fermentation, a new study finds.
|So, why do we use hard-hitting therapies against cancer?
Chemotherapy 'attacks' the proliferating capacity of cancer cells
which is the main characteristic and strength of cancer cells.
Dr. Paul Davies believes we should target cancer at its weak point –
by increasing oxygen uptake.
Maintaining pH balance is all about managing oxygen in the body
Indoor air can be more polluted than outdoor air. Urban swellers spend most of their time indoors - in cars, offices, shopping mall, gyms.
Physical movement in fresh air delivers oxygen to the cells - deep breathing, singing, laughing, dancing, walking, running, cycling, yoga, tai chi, sports, etc.
Good nutrition also delivers oxygen to the cells.
All commercially processed foods, and too much coffee, meat, alcohol, sugar, fruit, etc. will increase the acid burden on the kidneys. We regularly use pH test strips first thing in the morning, and when we get an acid reading, we carefully manage our diet across the day.
With a little practice, you'll know when you are excessively 'acidotic'.
E.g. mixed green salads, and any of the drinks, foods and remedies listed below will help, including apple cider vinegar in a small glass of water 15 minutes before a meal. Before going to bed (well after food has been digested), take 1/8 to 1/4 teaspoon of bi-carb soda in a 1/2 cup of water, follow with a glass of water to wash away the salty taste.
Acid pH leads to premature ageing
We now know that the human metabolism produces highly acidic wastes, and if these are not eliminated properly acidosis occurs, which then leads to major health breakdown.
There is another fundamental outcome:
Symptoms of aging are also caused by inefficient excretion of acidic waste. Excess acidic waste gradually accumulates in capillary blood vessels, slowly clogging them and depriving them of oxygen and essential nutrients. Remember, the skin is an organ too, and the consequence of slow organ deterioration is premature ageing.
When does premature ageing begin?
Babies remain alkaline while breast-feeding, but they will be susceptible to acidosis as soon as they are given solid foods. Thus, ageing begins when a child is weaned. An unborn child draws nutrients from the mother's alkaline minerals. This explains why pregnant women are advised to take nutrient supplements to sustain their energy and appetite.
See more links to anti-aging research here
|It's all about PREVENTION
How to prevent cancer and premature ageing. By maintaining body pH slightly above 7.4, cancer cells become dormant and at pH 8.5 cancer cells will die while healthy cells will live." (Barefoot & Reich, 2002)
The body pH scale is from 0 to 14: numbers below 7 are acidic (low on oxygen) and numbers above 7 are alkaline (high oxygen).
Testing your pH at home is easy. Simply purchase pH strips at your pharmacy, and then test your urine (mid-stream) first thing in the morning, before breakfast, or at least two hours after eating. If you find you have an acid pH reading, you can instantly alkalize your body by taking an 1/8 to 1/4 teaspoon of bi-carbonate soda in a small glass of water at least two hours before or after eating. (Follow with a glass of clean water to wash away the salty taste.) The best time to take bi-carb is before bed - the body will remain oxygenated over night.
"The pH of the internal environment, the basic 'ground' biochemical terrain, can tolerate more significant changes than that of the blood, but the pH of the internal environment should never go beyond 7.36 or 7.42 if good health is to be maintained. ...The acidification of the internal terrain is in fact the source of all health troubles caused by acidity." Christopher Vasey N.D., renowned Swiss researcher and author of
The Acid-Alkaline Diet for Optimum Health (2006)
pH monitoring shows how the kidneys respond to diet and oxygen uptake.
Use pH test strips regularly for accurate monitoring of pH levels.
Many medical practitioners use Roche Cumbur Test strips or Siemens Multistix strips, which test for more than pH levels.
"Routine testing of the urine with multiparameter strips is the first step in the diagnosis of a wide range of diseases. The analysis includes testing for the presence of proteins, glucose, ketones, haemoglobin, bilirubin, urobilinogen, acetone, nitrite and leucocytes as well as testing of pH and specific gravity or to test for infection by different pathogens." Source
Learn how to read pH Test Strips via Wikipedia!
Besides following an appropriate diet for your blood type, there are several choices available for cleansing the body of built-up acid wastes and maintaining a healthy pH balance.
- Bi-Carbonate of Soda: Sodium bicarbonate (aka bi-carb soda) has been used for centuries as an antacid, to treat heartburn, indigestion, and upset stomach. An 1/8 to 1/4 teaspoon of bi-carb soda in a small glass of water will instantly neutralize stomach acidity, and is best taken before going to bed –as needed. (Take at least 2 hours after eating, when stomach acids are needed to digest food.)
- Lemon water: Add a sliced un-squeezed lemon to a large jug of water and sip throughout the day. While lemons are acid pH, the acid is neutralised during the digestion process therefore they contribute to maintaining pH balance.
- Water: Increase water intake to help flush out toxins. Drink plain water between meals in the afternoon to allow your stomach time to rest and replenish digestive juices.
NOTE: sparkling mineral water is acid pH, along with all soft drinks.
Dr. F. Batmanghelidj (1931-2004) wrote the classic book on water, Your Body's Many Cries for Water: You are not sick. You are thirsty [1st edition 1992; 3rd edition 2008]
Dr Batmanghelidj recommended drinking about 8 large glasses of water a day.
He believed that dry mouth is not the first symptom of thirst but one of the last, and that as people age, their ability to recognize thirst decreases. This means they drink less and age even faster. Based on his research, he claims that water can protect people from the following conditions: Asthma and allergies, Obesity, High blood cholesterol, Heart disease and stroke, Diabetes, Hypertension, Infection, Depression and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Sleep disorders, Lack of energy, Addiction, Osteoporosis, Leukemia and Lymphoma, Attention Deficit Disorder, Hot flushes, Gout, Kidney stones
- Herbal teas: Peppermint, lemongrass, and chamomile tea are good to drink in the evening, while green tea is best taken during the day due to high caffeine content.
- Loose-leaf teas are best.
Some tea bags are made with plastic, such as nylon, thermoplastic, PVC or polypropylene. While these plastics have high melting points, the temperature at which the molecules in polymers begin to break down is always lower than the melting point, which could allow the bags to leach compounds of unknown health hazards into your tea when steeped in boiling water.
Paper tea bags are frequently treated with epichlorophydrin, which hydrolyzes to 3-MCPD when contact with water occurs. 3-MCPD is a carcinogen associated with food processing that has also been implicated in infertility and suppressed immune function. Purchase tea from manufacturers who can certify that their tea bags do not contain epichlorophydrin, and avoid plastic tea bags.
- Choose organic tea grown in a pristine environment, to avoid pesticides. Tea is known to accumulate fluoride, heavy metals and other toxins from soil and water, so a clean growing environment is essential to producing a pure, high-quality tea.
- Apple Cider Vinegar (ACV) neutralizes acidity, helps circulation, and is a great internal cleanser. Use certified organic or Bio-Dynamic ACV with the ‘Mother’ in it.
Take no more than 2 teaspoons in a glass of water 15 minutes before a meal to stimulate digestive juices for better breakdown of your food.
Alternatively, add a teaspoon of ACV to a glass of warm (not hot) water with a little honey to sweeten. Honey should not be dissolved in boiling water because heat will destroy the nutrients, and ‘real’ honey has a positive interaction with the cider. Store in a flask and sip during the day, especially at particularly stressful times.
- Elevated blood sugar is believed to be a major cause of ageing and various chronic diseases, including diabetes. The most effective (and healthiest) way to keep blood sugar levels stable is to avoid refined carbs and sugar, but apple cider vinegar may also have a powerful effect.
- Additional benefits
Lose excessive weight, lower blood pressure, overcome insomnia, eliminate hay fever, joint pain, shingles, pseudo gout and arthritis, fluid retention, skin blemishes, eczema, pyorrhoea, etc., etc.
- Honey water
Raw unpasturised honey-water strengthens the immune system, cleanses the intestines of toxin deposits, and cleanses the digestive tract of parasites and prevents their breeding.
How to prepare honey-water
Simply add one teaspoon of honey to a glass of warm water and stir.
(Hot water will destroy some of the nearly 200 nutrients in honey.)
- Celery or cherry extract (not concentrate) are powerful aids in reducing uric acid buildup in the kidneys.
JOINT PAIN, aka gout, is mainly caused by build-up of uric acid crystals in the joints, especially in the toes and knees. Either one of these extracts has been proven to be an effective remedy when taken every day for a month or so - along with improved diet, AND proper digestion.
If you are experiencing Gout, or arthritis-like symptoms in the feet and joints, it is most probably a symptom of uric acid build-up in the kidneys. i.e. acidosis. In addition to diet management, Cherry extract or Celery extract will help. Take one tablet daily and within 6 weeks the pain should be gone. Fresh celery and bitter apples are also great kidney cleansers, but when acidosis has set in, you'll need the more concentrated support of extracts.
Lemon acidity is neutralised
during the digestion process.
A few un-squeezed lemon slices in
a jug of water = a delicious alkalizing drink.
Believing that you received more sleep than you did is enough to give your brain some of the positive effects of sleep. "How to put your mind to sleep" and 'associate positivity' with sleeping
40 AMAZING FACTS ABOUT SLEEP
YOU PROBABLY DIDN'T KNOW...
(Or were too tired to think about)
National Sleep Research Project
Harvard School of Medicine
Health Watch suggests six reasons to get enough sleep:
William F. Dougherty, PsyD.
Go to Sleep Studies page
Every body is different, so get to know your own body.
Recommended daily dietary intake:
20% acid foods and 80% alkaline foods
Diets rich in animal proteins tend to produce acidic urine,
while diets mainly composed of vegetables tend to produce alkali urine.
Digestion begins with the flow of digestive juices in the mouth,
therefore, it is essential to chew food thoroughly.